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We note that given the limited distribution of sensors and spatially varying SWC  that establishing a “true” landscape average SWC is challenging and a comparison against the CRNP should be framed within the expected uncertainty of the mean given the inherent limitations of “spatial representativeness” of averaging a few point sensors in an area.The principles and practice of measuring SWC with active source neutrons is well established in soil science and agricultural research [22, 23].However, the effective CRNP radius is larger at higher elevations (i.e., less air mass means neutrons can travel further during scattering) and smaller with increases in absolute humidity (i.e., more hydrogen in the air reduces travel distance during scattering; see  for full details and equations for calculating footprint).Given the elevation of the study site (277 m.a.s.l.) and absolute humidity measurements, the effective CRNP radius will be ~300 m  and will be adopted for this work herein.
(b) CRNP located at study site with weather station.
The TDT sensors are later reinserted for continued monitoring but the full 2014 data were not available.
Instead the network of available TDT sensors (between December 12, 2013, and May 1, 2014) were used to independently compare against the CRNP observations of landscape SWC.
In this work, we will explore the use of the indirect Cosmic-Ray Neutron Probe (CRNP)  for providing a landscape average SWC value in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes.
The CRNP method was recently developed with its main applications in academic research through the establishment of national monitoring networks in the USA , Australia , UK, and South Africa, with probe installations mostly concentrated in natural ecosystems.