Elucidating mechanism cellular uptake

The cellular internalization of these nanoparticles by RAW264.7 cells was analyzed, providing a parametric evaluation of the effect of shape.

The efficiency of cellular uptake of the gold nanoparticles was found to rank in the following order from lowest to highest: stars, rods, and triangles.

The shape of the GNPs become the major variable parameter for our cellular uptake research.

To select a safe concentration of P-GNPs for the cellular uptake studies, cytotoxicity was evaluated using the CCK-8 assay.

GNSs had neutral surface charge, whereas GNTs and GNRs were highly positively charged.

They all possessed a neutral potential after modification with m PEG (Fig. Then we obtained the nanoparticles with similar sizes and surface potentials, as shown in Table 1.

TEM images of cellular uptake and localization of P-GNPs showed that nanoparticles were internalized as single particles after 24 h incubation (Fig.

We fabricated gold nanostars (GNSs), gold nanorods (GNRs) and gold nanotriangles (GNTs) with similar size and coated them with methylpolyethylene glycol (m PEG) to obtain a neutral surface charge for excluding the interference of other factors (Fig. As is typically observed, m PEGylation allowed the GNPs to be well dispersed in aqueous solution and reduced the toxicity of the stabilizing agent CTAB. did evaluate the cellular uptake of GNPs by RAW264.7, but they did not investigate the endocytosis pathways. 2A–C, the GNPs exhibited distinct color variations.The two surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of GNSs were observed at 525 nm and 705 nm (Fig.2D), which corresponded to the transverse longitudinal plasmon resonance of the elongated tips. 2F, the GNTs had a major plasmon band at 635 nm corresponding to the in-plane band; the band at 575 nm was related to the byproducts of the gold nanoparticles.GNPs have numerous advantages for biomedical applications, including the ease of adding functional biomolecules, efficiency in penetrating cells, and their ability to respond to light in near-infrared.However, a better understanding is needed of the interaction of GNPs with biological membranes.

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The size, shape, surface charge, and surface coating of nanoparticles all can affect their interactions with cells.

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